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Estudo analisa colheita e transporte de madeira para geração de energia

A pesquisa foi realizada na Finlândia, mas se aplica às características da produção energética no Brasil.

Foi publicado recentemente no site da Promobio, um artigo sobre a colheita e o transporte de madeira de pequeno diâmetro (Harvesting and Transport of Small-Diameter Wood) destinada para a geração de energia. A pesquisa foi realizada na Finlândia, mas se aplica às características da produção energética no Brasil, afinal a madeira utilizada aqui tem características semelhantes, quando o aspecto levado em consideração é o diâmetro da madeira.

 

Ao comparar os sistemas de registro mais comuns que são usados em desbastes pré-comerciais na Finlândia - o manual, o mecanizado de árvores inteiras e o baldeio por Forwarder; e a colheita peloHarwarder - o sistema com duas máquinas foi apresentado com maior custo competitivo, graças ao corte eficiente e, principalmente, devido ao trabalho desempenhado pelo Forwarder.. Na colheita manual, os custos de corte e agrupamento estavam no mesmo nível que no sistema mecanizado, enquanto o processo de retirada da madeira até a estrada do talhão representou quase o dobro do custo.

 

Utilizando o Sistema com o Harwarder, o custo de colheita encontrando foi mais alto, porém houve maiores volumes e custos de remoção do que o processo manual. Para tornar o custo do sistema de Harwarder competitivo são necessárias melhorias no equipamento de colheita, bem como, o desenvolvimento de melhorias técnicas de forma geral no Harwarder.

Arauco CFO says Montes del Plata should start operations by end of March, pulp oversupply may impact hardwood prices in second half


Arauco CFO says Montes del Plata should start operations by end of March, pulp oversupply may impact hardwood prices in second half

 

Uruguayan Montes del Plata mill, a 50/50 joint venture between Arauco and Stora Enso, is expected to begin pulp production by the end of this month, Arauco's CFO Gianfranco Truffello stated. "We expect the startup at the end of March. Everything is ready at the mill, and we have sent all documents do DINAMA [the Uruguayan Environmental Agency]. We are now waiting for their approval to start producing, which we think will happen by the end of this month." The Montes del Plata mill has a capacity of 1.3 million tonnes/yr of bleached eucalyptus kraft (BEK) pulp at Punta Pereyra, in Uruguay.

 

According to Truffello, Arauco's current pulp production is divided into 70% softwood and 30% hardwood. "With the Montes del Plata volume, this will change to 60% softwood and 40% hardwood," the executive commented. In 2013, Arauco produced 3.08 million tonnes of pulp compared to 2.97 million in 2012.

 

During Arauco's fourth quarter 2013 conference call, the CFO added that the 15-day port strike in Chile at the beginning of this year affected the company's wood panel and pulp invoicing and exports, "but it will be rapidly recovered". The executive also said that the first quarter of 2014 should be very good for the company's pulp business, with good prices especially for softwood.

 

As for the second quarter, Arauco foresees a market pulp slowdown, which "usually begins in May in the Northern Hemisphere." "As we enter the second quarter, and also in the second half of 2014, short fiber oversupply should impact prices. Long fiber prices may be affected by the situation in Europe and short fiber oversupply, but to a much lesser extent than short fiber."

 

Truffello mentioned that the new pulp volume coming from Montes del Plata should not affect the global market - especially prices - at least in the first half. "The ramp up process should take six months. However, we don't know yet how the market [prices] will be in the second half for hardwood."

 

RISI

Mercado de Drones pode atingir US$ 12 bilhões em 2023

Global sawlog prices rose in the 4Q/13 resulting in the GSPI reaching its third highest level since 1995

Global sawlog prices rose in the 4Q/13 resulting in the GSPI reaching its

third highest level since 1995; the highest price increases were seen in

Western North America, Northern Europe and the Baltic States, reports

the Wood Resource Quarterly 

 

Higher demand for lumber and increased global trade of logs pushed sawlog prices

upward in many markets during 2013, according to the Wood Resource Quarterly. As a

consequence, the GSPI price index has move upward to reach its highest level in eight

years. Log prices in Western North America, Sweden, Finland, Latvia and Japan have

increased the most over the past 12 months. 

 

Seattle, USA. Sawlog prices trended upward throughout the world in the 4Q/13 and the

Global Sawlog Price Index (GSPI) rose to US$88.78/m3. This was the highest level in

over two years and the third highest price on record since the inception of the Index in

1995, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly (WRQ). In the 4Q/13, the GSPI was 5.4%

higher year-over-year and 14% higher than the ten-year average. 

 

Many of the price increases around the world during 2013 were the result of improved

lumber prices in a number of key markets in the second half of the year and a

substantially higher trade of logs worldwide. Global shipments of softwood logs were up

by as much as 17% from 2012, totaling more than 80 million m3, based on estimats by

Wood Resources International. This was the highest shipment of logs since 2007 when

global trade reached an estimated 86 million m3. Of the ten largest log-importing

countries, China, Germany, Sweden, Finland and Canada increased import volumes the

most year-over-year. It was only South Korea that reduced importation from 2012 to

2013.

 

On a regional basis, sawlog prices in the 4Q/13 did go up the most in North America and

Europe year-over-year because of tighter log supply, while log prices retracted somewhat 

in Latin America and Oceania (in US dollar terms). In local currencies, upward price 

movements the past year have been the highest in the Western US, Western Canada,

Japan, Latvia and Sweden, with 4Q/13 prices being between 8-18% higher than in the

4Q/12, according to WRQ (www.woodprices.com). 

 

Most of the listed countries are major lumber exporters, and with improved consumption

of lumber around the world in late 2013, demand for sawlogs did increase so sawmills

have been forced to pay more for logs to be able to obtain sufficient supplies to feed their

mills. This trend is likely to continue in 2014 with lumber markets improving in North

America and Europe.

 

Hakan Ekstrom 

Increases in Russian lumber exports

Increases in Russian lumber exports have not compensated for the

decline in log exports that came as the result the implementation of

higher log export tariffs by Russia in 2007, reports the Wood Resource

Quarterly 

 

The Russian log export tax that was implemented in 2007 resulted in a sharp decline of

log exportation with the Russian share of globally traded logs falling from 44% in 2006

to 15% in 2013. During the same period, lumber exports have increased but shipments

have not compensated for the decline in income from the log exports, according to the

Wood Resource Quarterly. 

 

Seattle, USA. In 2008, Russia’s president Putin decided to add a tax to logs exported

from the country with the goal of reducing exportation of wood raw-material,

encouraging investments in domestic processing in wood products, and increasing

exports of lumber and plywood. The first objective has definitely been achieved. When

log export tariffs of 25% were implemented for softwood logs, all major trading partners

reduced their reliance on Russian logs and diversified their log supply sources fairly

swiftly. All-time high log exportation in 2006 and 2007 fell by about 30% the first year

of the higher log export tax, as reported in the Wood Resource Quarterly (WRQ). By

2013, only one-third of the volume exported at the peak level six years ago was shipped

to foreign markets.

 

With the decline in log exports from Russia, the country is no longer the leading source

of logs in the world. In 2006, Russian softwood logs accounted for 44% of all logs traded

in the world.  By 2013, Russia had fallen behind both New Zealand and the US on the list

of top log exporters in the world and Russian shipments only accounted for 15% of total

global log trade. 

 

When Russia joined the WTO in 2012, it was forced to take steps to reduce trade 

restrictions on export logs. This resulted in a lowering of the tariffs on softwood logs to 

between 13-15%. Even with these reductions, foreign log buyers have not rushed back to

Russia to buy logs, and export volumes in 2013 were down four percent as compared to

2012.

 

The second goal of increasing lumber exports has also been reached, but this increase has

been fairly limited and has not compensated in either volume or value for the dramatic

reduction in log exports since 2007, according to WRQ (www.woodprices.com). While

the value of softwood log exports have fallen about two billion dollars in six years,

softwood lumber export values have only gone up 300 million dollars. As a result, the

total value of exported logs and lumber was 27% lower in 2013 than the year before the

log export tax came into effect in 2007.

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